Teacher Evaluation

“Evaluation is opportunity for valuable discussion, relationship building, and trust earning.  It should involve meaningful feedback, result in productive growth, and be craved–by both staff and evaluator.  When the evaluator sincerely cares, it shows.  When it shows, staff and evaluator are better for it.  When staff and evaluator are better for it, kids win.  And that should be the goal of evaluation.” (Evaluation in 2 Simple Steps)

 

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Teacher evaluation is a contentious issue and a daunting task for teachers and administrators alike. How does one navigate the complexities?What factors should be included? How will the evaluation impact careers?

Based on my research, there appear to be two major threads in the teacher evaluation tapestry. One is quantitative, using various methods to collect student statistics (i.e. standardized tests) to measure teacher effectiveness. The other is qualitative, and determines effectiveness through peer or administrative observation. There are other methods that blend the quantitative and qualitative methods together. These aspire to reach a more balanced outcome and more accurate picture of teacher effectiveness. 

 
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The Tennessee Value-Added Assessment System epitomizes the quantitative method. Taking a cue from “big data” approaches to analysis, the TVAAS analyzes student data over a number of years to establish the student’s baseline score, and then to track the “value” that a particular teacher has added, measured by that student’s relative improvement on standardized testing. TVAAS compiles this data to create an evaluation of the teacher’s effectiveness.

 

Minnesota, my home state, utilizes an evaluation system called “Minnesota Marzano Teacher Evaluation Model, offered as a comprehensive approach to teacher evaluation that is coordinated and compatible with the Minnesota Teacher Evaluation Statute and the Minnesota Teacher Evaluation Default Model” (ACGC Teacher Growth Model).

The Marzano Teacher Evaluation Model presents a number of advantages to districts:

• Focuses evaluations on instructional elements shown by research to impact student achievement.

• Incorporates data from a variety of sources for a well-rounded assessment

• Encourages continual improvements in instruction through deliberate practice

• Integrates Dr. Marzano’s Casual Teacher Evaluation Model to build up evidence of effective instruction

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How is this system implemented? It identifies a clear relationship between Teacher Practice, Student Engagement, and Student Learning and Achievement. However, instead of relying primarily on student data (only 35%), its primary focus is more qualitative observations (50%) which include informal and formal observations. 

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Unlike the previous two methods, the Teach Now Clinical Evaluation utilizes an in-depth observation-based rubric. Each teacher candidate is observed by a skilled peer, who offers advice and observations based on their wealth of knowledge and experience.

I have the unique experience of writing this after I have already completed my Teach Now Clinical modules. My mentor was invaluable in offering precise, constructive, and useful feedback. Through our conversations, as well as her verbal and written explanations of my grade (based on the rubric), I was able to see visible growth through the clinical process. 

I appreciated my mentors feedback, as it helped me to set and achieve the following goals:

  1. Create a sense of community and belonging in the classroom.
  2. Set high expectations for all students.
  3. Collaborate with colleagues on an ongoing basis.
  4. Maintain professionalism in all areas.
  5. Assess lessons and “shift-gears”.

I prefer to be evaluated by systems such as the Teach Now Rubric, or Danielson’s Framework. As an educator I find these methods actually inform, improve, and encourage my pedagogy. 

Danielson’s Framework

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References:

Teacher Evaluations. Retrieved May 22, 2017, from Ohio Department of Education, http://education.ohio.gov/getattachment/Topics/Teaching/Educator-Evaluation-System/Ohio-s-Teacher-Evaluation-System/OTES-Original-Framework-Graphic112015_acc.pdf.aspx

Evaluation in 2 Simple Steps. (2013, November 29). Retrieved May 24, 2017, from http://connectedprincipals.com/archives/9815

OECD. (n.d.). Teachers for the 21st Century Using Evaluation to Improve Teaching. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp13/TS2013%20Background%20Report.pdf

The New Teacher Project 2011. (n.d.). RATING A TEACHER OBSERVATION TOOL: Five ways to ensure classroom observations are focused and rigorous. Retrieved from https://tntp.org/assets/documents/TNTP_RatingATeacherObservationTool_Feb2011.pdf

Leading Forward . (n.d.). ACGC Teacher Growth Model. Retrieved from http://www.acgcfalcons.org/District/WBWF/ACGC%20Teacher%20Growth%20Model%20April%2014%202014.pdf

Education Minnesota. (n.d.). Teacher development and evaluation FAQ. Retrieved May 24, 2017, from http://www.educationminnesota.org/resources/teacher-development-and-evaluation/faq-general

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Pre-Assessment for Differentiation

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Pre-Assessments are an integral component in effective lessons because they allow us to differentiate instructions in ways that truly meet student needs. They are typically administered at the beginning of a unit or lesson to determine student prior knowledge. By utilizing the resulting data, teachers can make necessary adjustments to help all students meet the standards and objectives through a meaningful process.

What is the Purpose of Pre-Assessment?

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Unit Objectives

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For this unit, I created a pre-assessment quiz using Kahoot. The results will provide useful data to inform any alterations or required differentiation.

(Click Here to view Pre-Assessment)

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Differentiation by Readiness

Student Data:

  • 5 students answered most, including the most difficult, of the pre-assessment questions correctly
  • 12 students have some knowledge about the topic as shown in their score, but need to develop higher order thinking skills
  • 5 students appear to have limited knowledge about the topic

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(Link to Mind Map)

Innovative Differentiation Strategies

1. Scaffolding: I will use a variety of techniques to move struggling students progressively toward stronger understanding of the content.

  • Provide clear, concise instructions that are broken down into manageable steps and provide  regular feedback.
  •  Use the “I do” “We do” “you do” to help students who  benefit from seeing something in action before doing it themselves. 
  • Think-Pair-Share activity allows auditory students to rephrase the concepts in their own words, describe them to their peers, and thus solidify the new information in their minds through an auditory intake process.

 

2. Video: For students who require assistance in order to develop higher order thinking skills, I will implement a flipped classroom method. 

  • Have students watch khan academy, youtube, or other videos at home to introduce a lesson or topic. This will cut down on “lecture” time and increase the time available for assignments or projects in class with the teacher available to assist or facilitate. 
  • Entry ticket: As strategy is based on a flipped classroom method, the teacher will ask students to turn in the provided worksheet/graphic organizer that accompanied the video they should have watched the day before.

 

3. Learning Menus: This gives students multiple options and embeds choices into the learning process. They complete 1 of the appetizers, 1 of the entrees, and students who finish can also complete one of the dessert activities.

  • Example: Have the students write a reflective journal in which they address how they felt during each “acting out” piece. “Why would people strive to have a say in their government?”   
  • Appetizer Choices: With a partner discuss and mind map the question above.  
  • Entree Choices: Essay form, paired discussion and mind map, animation (rawshorts), etc..
  • Dessert Choices (Optional): Illustration of essay, digital storyboard  (storyboardThat), webquest, etc..

 

3. Enrichment Station: For those students that might finish the required assignments early, the teacher will have an area in the back of the room (enrichment station) with extra books and materials on Ancient Greece that students can look through according to their own interests. D’aulaires Book of Greek Myths and webquests would be an excellent choice for this enrichment station.

Ongoing Assessments

It’s important to do continuous assessment throughout the unit to ensure students who started in the upper echelon don’t regress or stagnate. Assessment will take the form of exit slips, timeline construction, “Grab Bag Quiz”, student journals, think-pair-share, group discussion, role-play, online quizzes and games, and simulations. At the end of the unit there will be a summative assessment exam as well as a project to determine the final marks.

Summative Assessment

For the project, groups of students will design a commercial and social media campaign . They will brainstorm, create, and display their end product: a social media campaign. This project will take place over a series of weeks. Students will be expected to work on the project during given class time. But collaboration and completing work outside of class will also be expected. 

Students will be given various choices on the final product of their project. Each team must follow the rubric, but they can decide how they want to deliver the campaign. They might choose from:

  • Musical students could write and perform a music video
  • Typical TV commercial/interview
  • Movie trailer style video
  • Animated video
  • A skit in front of the class

In Future Lessons

Peer Feedback and Revision: Before students break up into their small groups to work on the project they will discuss peer revision and feedback. Students and teacher will discuss and create a rubric for self-revision, and also a rubric for groups to evaluate each others work before submitting a final product.

 

Presentation Day: Each group will have the opportunity to display their design  and final product. The class will vote on which presentation they thought was the most “persuasive”.

 Journal: Students will write a reflection on the process, how they did on the project, and why they personally voted for a certain project.

 

References:

5. Pre-assessment Ideas – Differentiation & LR Information for SAS Teachers. (n.d.). Retrieved May 11, 2017, from https://sites.google.com/site/lrtsas/differentiation/5-preassessment-ideas

Bell, D. (n.d.). Renaissance Teacher Work Samples Consortium. Retrieved May 11, 2017, from http://www.wku.edu/rtwsc/exemplars.php

Submitted by: Idaho State University Grade Level: 4th Subject: Social Science and Humanities

University, C. M. (n.d.). Assessing Prior Knowledge. Retrieved May 11, 2017, from https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/teach/priorknowledge.html

Image: https://hersheyk12.instructure.com/courses/239/pages/pre-assessment-strategies

Image: https://kr.pinterest.com/pin/59883870018279988/

Image: http://idc.mscuttle.com/the-ins-and-out-of-kahoot/

High Stakes Assessments in Action

For a Laugh, Can you Survive The South Korean Education System?

Found out by watching, Can You Pass One Of The Hardest South Korean Tests? 

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“A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers. In general, “high stakes” means that test scores are used to determine punishments (such as sanctions, penalties, funding reductions, negative publicity), accolades (awards, public celebration, positive publicity), advancement (grade promotion or graduation for students), or compensation (salary increases or bonuses for administrators and teachers).” (Edglossary)

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Korean students are not strangers to high stakes assessments, and this is demonstrated by their international ranking in student achievement. 

According to the website, “PISA 2012 is the programme’s 5th survey. It assessed the competencies of 15-year-olds in reading, mathematics and science (with a focus on mathematics) in 65 countries and economies.”

To summarize the report, South Korean students consistently rank in the top ten when it comes to test scores for subjects such as math, science, and reading.

WENR, World Education New & Reviews suggests, “South Korea is widely perceived as having one of the best K-12 education systems in the world. A study by education firm Pearson, with data from the Economist Intelligence Unit, found South Korea to have the second-best education system in the world (after Finland)” (Education in South Korea).

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What are some Reasons for the International Ranking of South Korean Students?

I once asked a Korean co-worker why the Korean people and parents push their children so hard when it comes to academic achievement. I had good cause for asking this as I frequently had bright students sobbing in my class after receiving a score of 95% – 98% on their recent test. She explained to me that as Korea is such a small country, with very few natural resources, many Koreans see their intelligence as the greatest resource they possess. Therefore, every parent wants their child to get perfect scores, go to one of the prestigious universities, and get a good job at a big company.   

According to World Education News & Reviews, “Korean children spend 220 days a year in school versus 190 in Finland and 180 in the United States. By some measures, the average Korean child spends 13 hours a day studying after supplemental class time is factored in. According to a PISA criterion known as “study effectiveness,” South Korea ranks only 24th out of 30 developed nations. Children in Finland, the top ranked country in study effectiveness (and third ranked overall), spend significantly less time in school and in studying in general than is the case in Korea.”

I have witnessed this phenomenon firsthand as most of my students attend some type of educational establishment from 8-9am until anywhere from 8-11pm on any given day. Korean students often study and attend private academies on weekends as well.

It is therefore not a surprise that Korean children rank high internationally, as they spend significantly more time in the educational setting than children in other countries.

Teacher quality and effort are also high on the list of reasons why Korean students perform well on an international level. “Today, teaching is the most popular career choice among young South Koreans, due to a combination of high social status, job stability and high pay. Only two out of 32 countries surveyed by the OECD, for example, pay higher salaries to their lower secondary teachers than South Korea. The result is that just 5% of applicants are accepted into elementary school teacher training programs, and the teacher attrition rate is very low, only a little over 1% per year.  The proportion of all South Korean teachers that are fully certified and hold bachelors degrees is among the highest in the world.” NCEE

High Stakes Assessments in South Korea

Assessments are high-stakes when there are significant consequences tied to the performance of students, such as university admittance after taking the “SuNeung Sihum” (University Entrance Test). 

The day of the College Scholastic Ability Test (CSAT) is seen by South Korea as the most stressful day of the year as hundred of thousands of students sit for nine hours to complete it, vying with each other for spots in Korea’s top universities.

“In South Korea, the reality is most students have lived for this very day. They have put in so much time and effort, and the fact that everything is decided on this one day can place an immense amount of pressure on them,” a teacher from Paihwa Girl’s High School, who had come to cheer on his students, said.”  (Year of Hell)

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(View youtube video: SOUTH KOREA: Korea halts for ‘ticket to life’ exam)

Many South Korean students view their senior year in high school “the year of hell.” However, the pressure to study for these high stakes assessments begins in preschool and kindergarten. The educational culture of South Korea is one of high stakes testing and is linked to the country’s roots in Confucianism. Beginning in the 1st grade students must spend countless hours studying, and the end result is that they study for exams instead of studying to learn.

How much time is spent in testing? Korean students spend an average of 10-14 hours studying each day.  On 16 year old student, Hye-Min Park, when asked about her schedule said, “I get tired usually but I can forget about my hardships when I see my results, because they’re kind of good!”

Are teachers teaching to the test? Korea is internationally renowned for its extremely high-stakes testing. From my personal experience teaching there for 3 years the primary responsibilities of the teachers are to prepare students for the numerous exams they take every year. According to Sung Tae Jang various governmental efforts in South Korea “have sought to diversify and solidify standards for teacher accountability.” He also states, “Although some schools use student achievement to evaluate teachers’ capability in South Korea, a sufficient discussion about the effectiveness of teacher evaluation tied to student achievement is lacking in South Korea.”

Some Korean Schools are Rethinking the Test-driven Educational System, Should the U.S.?

For an excellent example of this resistance to the high stakes culture, we look to a school in the heart of Seoul.  Haja Production School, also know as “Seoul Youth Factory for Alternative Culture”, was founded 15 years ago to give young Koreans an “alternative educational space, where youth who dropped out of competitive mainstream schooling learn art and media production skills and develop a critical analysis of their society.”

One Haja student explained the choice to leave regular school by stating, our schools are “highly competitive… [we wonder] is this learning really for ourselves or just for going to a university? Even at a university, I don’t think many of us choose to study what we really want to study, we chose what will lead to a stable life afterwards. I came to Haja because I wanted an education [where I could learn] what I wanted to learn.” Instead of students and teachers being consumed by endless hours of test cramming, they can work together to prepare the students for diverse careers and community life. 

While their peers spend 12-14 hours a day in school or “cram schools” memorizing facts for the various high stakes exams, students at Haja are able to develop their 21st century skills of collaboration and critical thinking. “Since the Fukushima disaster, the school has focused on some of society’s profound challenges like climate change and increasing social isolation.” 

Perhaps the U.S. should pause rethink the current high stakes track it’s on. Do we really want to lose our children to the abyss that is “narrowly-defined definitions of success” where their  “critical thinking is sacrificed to the gods of standardization”? 

How are Students Handling Increasing Pressures to Perform in Korea’s High Stakes Assessment Culture?

According to an article in the New York Times, Se-Woong Koo, a product of the South Korean education system, believes that “The world may look to South Korea as a model for education — its students rank among the best on international education tests — but the system’s dark side casts a long shadow. Dominated by Tiger Moms, cram schools and highly authoritarian teachers, South Korean education produces ranks of overachieving students who pay a stiff price in health and happiness. The entire program amounts to child abuse. It should be reformed and restructured without delay” (Koo, S., 2014).

While not every student suffers under the Korean educational system, it is quite obvious to me from personal experience that students here are under tremendous amounts of pressure and strain. Korean children are given very little time for recreation or rest, and must continually operate in a brutally competitive system. Class test scores are usually public knowledge and those with low scores are shamed or held up as the “don’t be this student” example for others.

Do the intense expectations and high stakes assessments in South Korea produce high academic results? Yes, they do. However, they also produce low results in other areas. While they rank high internationally, South Korean students’ interest in school and satisfaction rate is low, in comparison to other OECD countries.

“More disturbingly, Statistics Korea and the Ministry of Gender Equality and Family last year reported that worry over career and academic performance is the main reason youths aged 13-19 contemplate suicide. According to the report, suicide was the biggest cause of death among people aged 15-24 in 2011.” (High performance, high pressure in South Korea’s education system, 2015).

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I’m not sure if the high international academic rankings are worth this much loss of happiness and life among Korean students.

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(View youtube video: Academic Pressure Pushing S. Korean Students To Suicide)

The interesting thing about Korean education, compared with that of the U.S., is that Korean parents have low involvement, other than monetarily providing for education. In the U.S. parent and community involvement is encouraged, while Korean parents are usually too busy to do anything other than pay the private academy bills and check report cards.

Teachers in Korea are under tremendous amounts of pressure. The problem is that they are often drowning in a sea of paperwork and administrative duties that classes rarely are anything other than a dispensation of facts for the students to memorize for the next test.

I believe the Korean government realizes there are issues with the education system, and they have undergone some policy changes to assist the situation. However, they cannot prevent parents from sending their children to a multitude of after school academies to help their child “get ahead” of everyone else.

With the student suicide rate so high, and the overall education related unhappiness and stress, I sincerely hope that at some point a balance is reached for the sake of the emotional and mental health of Korean children. 

Former Education Minister, Prof JuHo Lee said, “Test scores may be important in the age of industrialization, but not anymore. So we look into the ways to reform our education system, not based on test scores, but based on creativity and social and emotional capacities.”

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(View youtube video: South Korea’s exam suicides)

References

Jang, S. T. (2016). The Effectiveness of Tying Teacher Evaluation Policy to Student Achievement in South Korea. US-China Education Review. Retrieved May 5, 2017, from http://www.davidpublisher.org/Public/uploads/Contribute/56a83bceb751b.pdf

Chakrabarti, R. (2013, December 02). South Korea’s schools: Long days, high results. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://www.bbc.com/news/education-25187993

Strauss, V. (2014, August 06). A lesson from South Korea: Student resistance to high-stakes testing. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2014/08/06/a-lesson-from-south-korea-student-resistance-to-high-stakes-testing/?utm_term=.f46022d71fde

South Korea Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://ncee.org/what-we-do/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/south-korea-overview/

(n.d.). Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://abcnews.go.com/International/video/south-korea-braces-college-entrance-exam-day-43591994

Lee, J. (2011, November 13). South Korean students’ ‘year of hell’ culminates with exams day – CNN.com. Retrieved May 07, 2017, from http://edition.cnn.com/2011/11/10/world/asia/south-korea-exams/

College Entrance Exams for South Korean Students [Korean girl taking a test]. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.thedailypedia.com/2014/11/college-entrance-exams-south-korean-students/

Education glossary. (August 18, 2014) High-Stakes Test. Retrieved May 6, 2017 from http://edglossary.org/high-stakes-testing/

헤. (2015). South Korea still has top OECD suicide rate. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20150830000310

@. (2015). High performance, high pressure in South Korea’s education system. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://monitor.icef.com/2014/01/high-performance-high-pressure-in-south-koreas-education-system/

Coughlan, S. (n.d.). Asia tops biggest global school rankings. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.bbc.com/news/business-32608772

NCEE » South Korea: System and School Organization. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.ncee.org/programs-affiliates/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/south-korea-overview/south-korea-system-and-school-organization/
PISA 2012 Results – OECD. (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.oecd.org/pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results.htm

Koo, S. (2014). An Assault Upon Our Children. Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/02/opinion/sunday/south-koreas-education-system-hurts-students.html?_r=0
Education in South Korea (n.d.). Retrieved September 16, 2016, from http://wenr.wes.org/2013/06/wenr-june-2013-an-overview-of-education-in-south-korea

Elementary Social Studies Unit: Greek City State Simulation Game

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Overview

Overview: In this simulation game, students will take on different roles as members of a Greek city-state. Each member has a specific job to do and will work with other members in the city-state to complete assigned tasks.

Instructional Objective

Students will employ collaborative, creative and communication skills to develop an understanding of ancient Greece by participating in a simulation game.

  1. Use the internet to gather information and answer assigned questions on ancient Greece.
  2. Identify and label major cities and landforms on a map.
  3. Construct a monument following instructions and using specific materials.

Learners

This simulation game is designed for a Grade 5 students. One can expect the usual mix of kids with different learning abilities, English language learners, and possibly kids with learning disabilities.

Motivation

Ancient Greece is a high-interest topic for all age groups, and this simulation will further engage students because it is ‘hands-on’ and has a wide range of activities. They have limited time to complete their tasks and each task requires the members to be actively involved with the task and other members as they plan, negotiate, communicate, design, and build.  The competitive nature of the simulation will also motivate them to work hard to be the winning team.

Context of Use

This simulation could be used as supplemental activity for a unit on Ancient Greece. It could also be used partly for test preparation, where students gather information and answers to questions in preparation for a test. This simulation will promote and enhance the 21st Century skills of collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and communication and could serve as a perfect end of term activity.

Scope

This simulation will require maybe two class periods, or a total of 90 minutes. It will involve the participation of the entire class and full use of the classroom. Desks, tables, and chairs may need to be moved in order to separate the students into the appropriate groups. This game will require the students to complete three tasks or deliverables:

  1. Completed Map – up to 2   (geographical knowledge)
  2. Completed Scrolls – up to 4  (historical knowledge)
  3. King’s Monument – 1   (teamwork, collaboration, creativity)

Object of the Game

The team with the most points accumulated conquers the team with the lowest point value. This team then joins the winning team as their slaves for the next battle between the city-states or maybe it will be empires by that time.

Design Details

The overall feel will be as realistic as possible. The students will be provided with real maps and pictures of Ancient Greece.

Specific Elements

The teacher will need to complete the Pre – Game checklist to make sure all of the necessary supplies and materials are ready and accounted for. To encourage trading, each City-State (group) will receive different supplies, including the Cartographers Kit.

Pre – Game checklist:

Olympia-Scroll #1Scroll #2 Scroll #3 Scroll #4 Scroll #5Blue Map-Med SeaBuilding Supplies- Bricks Cardboard Cereal boxes 4 shoeboxes cardboard tubes paper plates 3 milk cartons cardboard tray (for base).png

The class will be divided up into 3 City-States: Corinth, Argos, and Olympia. Each group will receive a number of important scrolls, maps, and documents in order to play the game.
Each group will receive their own scroll with the objectives and rules of the game.

Objectives and Rules example:

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Each group will receive their own scroll with the definitions of roles that students will choose for the game.

Example of Role Definitions:

YOUR CITY-STATE- __________________________Directions- READ this entire sheet as a team and then proceed to #1..png

Each group, or City-State will be provided with a scoring rubric in order to complete the game.

Example of Rubric:

City-State SCORING-.png

Each group, or City-State will be provided with a map/s that the cartographer and others must complete.

Each group, or City-State will be provided with a cartographer directions scroll  in order to accurately complete the map.

Example of Map Instructions:

1. In blue, HL, in black label all Seas-Mediterranean, Aegean, Caspian,Aral, Black,.png

Each group, or City-State will be provided with a series of scrolls (up to 4) that the scribes and others must complete. The students will use the “Temple Library” to research the answers to the questions on the scrolls (which are in the quiz format).

Scroll example: Each scroll will have a total of 10 questions.

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“Temple Library”

Only one scribe at a time can enter the Temple Library to search for the answers to the scrolls. But what is the temple library? It is a computer station where the students will be provided with a series of websites as well as books to utilize in completing the scroll task.

*The teacher will need to ascertain what technology is available from the school and perhaps reserve laptops/computers ahead of time. Extra books/papers/maps and hard copy resources should be available in case of technology failure or difficulties.

A Companion Simulation

Through the course of my research, I found a second simulation that would make a great companion for this one. An Ancient Greek Olympics Simulation (http://ancienthistory.mrdonn.org/GreekOlympics.html).

This would be an excellent “reward” for the students as a final activity before moving on to another unit of study.

For extra excellent resources and a comprehensive overview of Ancient Greece activities click here to visit the livebinder I created for this unit.  

References

Ancient Greek Worksheets. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://www.historyforkids.net/greek-worksheets.html

Mapping Landforms. (2014). Retrieved August 20, 2016, from http://nationalgeographic.org/activity/mapping-landforms/

Ancient Greece Lessons. (n.d.). Retrieved August 20, 2016, from https://kr.pinterest.com/explore/ancient-greece-lessons/

Dodge, B. (n.d.). EDTEC 670: Exploratory Learning Through Educational Simulation and Games. Retrieved December 28, 2014, from http://edweb2.net/ldt670/

Dodge, B. (2002), ET670 Design Template. Retrieved 2002, from http://edweb.sdsu.edu/courses/edtec670/FinalProjectsF02.html. (URL no longer valid.)

The Importance of Differentiation to Meet Student Needs

What is the importance of identifying the learning profiles, interests, and levels of readiness of students in planning for instruction?

Identifying the specific learning profiles and needs of students helps teachers design lessons that allow students to engage with the content in an energetic, enthusiastic, and individualized fashion.

“When a topic connects to what students like to do, engagement deepens as they willingly spend time thinking, dialoging, and creating ideas in meaningful ways.”(mccarthy).

In order to implement meaningful differentiation teachers must:

  • Know student strengths
  • Involve student’s in planning process
  • Embed student choice in the process
  • Evaluate and make changes when necessary

 

Differentiation Strategies Mind Map

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(Visit Mind Map Here)

How will I learn about my students’ learning profiles, interests, and levels of readiness?

There are several types of strategies I would consider when trying to learn about my students. All of these strategies can be used to more effectively differentiate lessons as well as help the students understand themselves better.

“Matching learning profiles with student interest allows learners to process understanding of concepts through different modalities based on their own experiences” (mccarthy).

Student Profile Cards

The first possibility is to have them fill out short profile cards with information about their interests. While learning about what interests students have outside of school, these cards also depict how students view themselves and their abilities.

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Student Learning Profile Quick Surveys

Along with Learner Profile cards, I might consider using profile quick surveys to help my students understand what type of learners they are throughout the semester. When implementing a Learning Menu type of activity, students will be better equip to choose specific tasks appropriate to their needs.

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(from: http://openingpaths.org/blog/2014/07/slp-quick-surveys/).

Myers Briggs Personality Test

Another strategy I would consider, depending on the age of the students, is the Myers Briggs personality test. This could be administered at the beginning of the school year. It would be helpful as the teacher to know the various personality types in the classroom. But more importantly, this could be a beneficial tool for encouraging discussion between students about how to embrace the similarities and differences we all share.

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Personality Types Through Literature

Another possible option is to use literature to spur on discussion about the differences and similarities between people. Talking with students about inclusion, diversity, and acceptance is key to creating a classroom of compassion and caring.

An example of a book I might read to my students to initiate discussion might be The Treasure Tree.

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Along with all of these types of strategies I will be utilizing ongoing assessments to determine whether of not student profiles need reevaluation or alteration.

Each child is unique with individual educational needs and it is the teachers responsibility to address these needs in creative ways that will encourage students to successfully meet all learning objectives. Knowing the readiness, learning types, and interests of students equips the teacher with the necessary tools to create successful lessons.

Why did I choose the teaching strategies that I did to meet the needs of my students?

I chose two strategies, that were new to me, but that I would like to implement because of their versatility, creativity, and inclusion of student choice. They are:

Learning Centers – This strategy requires students to move from center to center.  Centers can be designed to meet the needs of kinesthetic students, Gifted students, low level students, and students with other needs. The versatility and of this technique is beneficial, and it allows students to choose between stations to fit their individualized interests.

Learning Menus – This strategy gives students multiple options and embeds choice into the learning process. They complete 1 of the appetizers, 1 of the entrees, and one of the dessert activities to interact with the content in a well-rounded, yet individualized manner.

I aspire to be effective, but also efficient by choosing techniques that are helpful for students across multiple need areas. For example, breaking instructions down into simple and concise steps not only helps those with learning difficulties but also ELL students. Just as including visuals with instructions is not only helpful for ELL children but visual learners as well.

It is the teachers responsibility to facilitate learning and help students meet their learning goals. Hopefully, by employing some or all of the techniques I have mentioned above, I will set my classroom on the path to success.

Sources

How Learning Profiles Can Strengthen Your Teaching | Edutopia. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/learning-profiles-john-mccarthy
Learning Profile Cards » Opening Paths. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://openingpaths.org/blog/2014/01/learning-profile-cards/
Student Learning Profile Quick Surveys » Opening Paths. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://openingpaths.org/blog/2014/07/slp-quick-surveys/
Learning Interest Matters – Edutopia. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/differentiated-instruction-learner-interest-matters-john-mccarthy
6 Good Tools to Differentiate Instruction » Opening Paths. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2016, from http://openingpaths.org/blog/2014/08/five-good-tools-di/
Students Matter: 3 Steps for Effective Differentiated Instruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/3-steps-effective-differentiated-instruction-john-mccarthy
image: http://personalitygrowth.com/what-each-myers-briggs-mbti-type-was-like-as-a-child/
image: http://personalitygrowth.com/what-each-myers-briggs-mbti-type-was-like-as-a-child/
image:

Planning Assessments For A Specific Objective

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Traditionally, when the word “assessment” is mentioned we immediately jump to a mental image of multiple choice tests and essay questions. However, while this type of assessment is helpful and has a time and a place, it is not the only method for examining how well our students have retained the information we have passed on to them.

“Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course. Formative assessments help teachers identify concepts that students are struggling to understand, skills they are having difficulty acquiring, or learning standards they have not yet achieved so that adjustments can be made to lessons, instructional techniques, and academic support” (2014, Formative Assessment Definition).

Formative Assessments for a Lesson Objective

I have chosen several formative assessment techniques and explained how I might use them to assess the following lesson objective:

Objective: The students will describe the similarities and differences between Sparta and Athens.

Formative assessment #1:

Question Pause:  After a mini lesson, I will pause and instruct students to discuss a question in pairs. This can be integrated with Think-Peer-Share strategy where students first answer questions individually, such as, “What does democracy mean?” They will then turn and share their thoughts with a partner. This is a quick method and should require less than 5 minutes. While students are deliberating, I will walk about the room to make myself available for questions.

Rationale: Students can have short attention spans, especially those with ADHD. Pausing the instruction to have children contemplate the information redirects their focus and provides a short break from “lecture” time. By doing a Think-Pair-Share assessment activity, students are able to rephrase the concepts in their own words, describe them to their peers, and thus solidify the new information in their minds. 

Formative assessment #2:

 

Journal Entry Reflection: In a previous lesson students were asked to write a journal reflection following the prompt below:

“Have students write their first journal entry reflecting on where they would live in Greece and why. Have them follow the model of “If I lived in Ancient Greece I would live____________________(region) because of____________________(feature).”

 Students could be asked to revisit this question, but with a twist. The new prompt could read as follows:

“Have students write a journal entry reflecting on which city-state they would prefer to live in and why. Have them follow the model of “If I lived in Ancient Greece I would live in____________________(city-state name) because of____________________(reasons).”

Another journal reflection prompt could be based on an in-class government role play:

Have the students write a reflective journal in which they address how they felt during each “acting out” piece. “Why would people strive to have a say in their government?”

Rationale: This assessment is important in gauging the level of understanding concerning concepts introduced in class. More importantly, it strictly follows the object and requires the students to know and describe the differences between Athens and Sparta and give their opinions about those differences. 

Formative assessment #2.2:

Informal Observation: While students are working at their journal entries I will walk around and check for understanding and offer support to students that might require additional prompting. I will make sure to circulate to a variety of students (low to high performing).

Rationale: This assessment will help me check for understanding of some of the basic concepts. If I observe a number of students are struggling to answer the question, I can call a small-group back to my table to reteach where there is a misunderstanding. If needed, I could plan a reteach and review at the beginning of the next lesson.

Formative assessment #3:

Exit slip:  At the end of the lesson students will be given a slip of paper/sticky note. Students will write their responses to questions such as, “Who was allowed to vote in Athens?” or “How were the Spartans different to the Athenians?” This will allow me to assess student understanding of important concepts.  I could also have them write one thing they are still unsure about or need more explaining.

Rationale: This method is a quick way to assess where students are at in showing mastery of the information and what information needs to be reviewed. For example, if a several students are unable to answer a basic question, I know I will need to review or reteach that information in the next lesson. 

Conclusion

While any type of assessment are better than none, it might not be an issue of which type of assessment is better than the other. I’m sure some teachers would vote for formative, while others fall in the summative assessment camp. However, balance tends to be the best option. A combination of both assessments maximizes the positive outcomes and is beneficial for students. 

Perhaps formative assessments are not utilized as often and effectively as they could be. Formative assessments give students constant feedback to let them know they are on the right track. They also help prepare students to perform better on a summative assessment at the end of the unit.

 

Sources

@. (2013). 22 Easy Formative Assessment Techniques for Measuring Student Learning. Retrieved October 16, 2016, from https://www.nwea.org/blog/2013/22-easy-formative-assessment-techniques-for-measuring-student-learning/

Reinken, C. (2013). Using Exit Slips in the Art Room – The Art of Ed. Retrieved May 18, 2016, fromhttps://www.theartofed.com/2013/03/14/using-exit-slips-in-the-art-room/

H. (2015). 10 Assessments You Can Perform In 90 Seconds. Retrieved October 16, 2016, from http://www.teachthought.com/pedagogy/assessment/10-assessments-you-can-perform-in-90-seconds/

Turn and Talk. (n.d.). Retrieved May 18, 2016, fromhttp://www.theteachertoolkit.com/index.php/tool/turn-and-talk

Image from: http://edge.ascd.org/blogpost/formative-assessment-an-introduction

@. (2014). Formative Assessment Definition. Retrieved October 16, 2016, from http://edglossary.org/formative-assessment/

Understanding and Applying Standards

“Excellence is never an accident. It is always the result of high intention, sincere effort, and intelligent execution; it represents the wise choice of many alternatives – choice, not chance, determines your destiny.”
― Aristotle

As educators we have a tremendous responsibility. We are charged with shaping the future through providing quality education for students and equipping them to the best of our ability to succeed in the adult world.

This is a daunting task. If you pause and consider all the aspects of the classroom and learning environment that teachers must consider, the effect is staggering. Teachers of today must:

Prepare students for the 21st Century Workforce

Poster (parents and teachers).jpgDifferentiate Lessons to Meet Various Needs

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Implement Classroom Management Strategies

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This is not a comprehensive list, but even so, the point has been made. Teachers carry a great deal of responsibility when it comes to their students.

Just one of these areas of responsibility is planning out lessons and adhering to school or state standards.

What Are Standards?

“Standards provide clear and consistent learning goals to help prepare students for college, career, and life. The standards clearly demonstrate what students are expected to learn at each grade level, so that every parent and teacher can understand and support their learning” (Read the Standards).

What is Unpacking a Standard?

For our first activity we were required to transform standards into lessons by “unpacking standards”. This concept assists teachers in creating lessons and implementing strategies that adhere to two specific standards.

In order achieve this, one must first decipher what the standard actually means. How does one go about this?

  • Identify what the student must know
  • Identify what the student must do
  • Recognize the verbs – explain, demonstrate, analyze
  • Notice the Nouns – content

 

What is Backwards Mapping?

It is starting from the specific goals we wish students to achieve, the exact knowledge they should posses, and skills they should master and creating the learning process around that.

“Our lessons, units, and courses should be logically inferred from the results sought, not derived from the methods, books, and activities with which we are most comfortable. Curriculum should lay out the most effective ways of achieving specific results. It is analogous to travel planning. Our frameworks should provide a set of itineraries deliberately designed to meet cultural goals rather than a purposeless tour of all the major sites in a foreign country. In short, the best designs derive backward from the learnings sought” (McTighe, J., Understanding by Design).

This concept of backwards planning, of starting with a broad standard and then narrowing the scope was a new and instructional idea for me. While I must admit it was a nit difficult to wrap my mind around at first, I do see the benefits and positive outcomes form utilizing it.

This strategy insures that students are learning what they need to be learning, and not simply receiving a hodgepodge of ideas that have been clumsily pieced together.

What are SMART Objectives?

SMART objectives are specific, written, and intentional goals that pinpoint what a student will know or do in relation to a specific lesson. For these objectives student outcomes are emphasized rather than specific actions of the teacher. These objectives must be:

  • Specific
  • Measurable or observable
  • Attainable for the audience
  • Relevant and results oriented
  • Target to learner and desired level of learning

 

Why are Standards Important?

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During this unit, I was able to observe the value in identifying a goal, breaking it down into specific and measurable objectives, and finally, observing outcomes through various activities.

Example

 

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Unit one activities have introduced new strategies for lesson planning and setting objectives. While I was quite confused at first and found the various standards quite daunting, I can now see the benefit in the backward mapping technique. If we set clear goals for ourselves as teachers, concise objectives for students, and continually monitor them through various assessments there can only be positive outcomes for all.

My Questions:

  • In my experience lesson planning in general is extremely time consuming. I’m wondering if applying standards and backwards planning is more or less time consuming than planning by a following the units in a book as I am currently used to doing?
  • I am curious when is lesson planning supposed to occur? At the beginning of the semester? Does this happen at work or in personal hours?
  • I wonder how much collaboration exists in the average school between teachers of the same grade? It seems to me a lot of time could be saved if thoughts, ideas, and work was shared.

 

In the Future

I would like to take time to peruse the following resources for further information and personal development:

 

Sources

Read the Standards. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2016, from http://www.corestandards.org/read-the-standards/

McTighe, Jay. (6, December 2012).  Common Core Big Idea 4: Map Backward From Intended Results.  Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/common-core-map-backwards-jay-mctighe-grant-wiggins.

Boroway, Amy Erin, and Cronin, Ashley. (9, November 2011).  Resources for Understanding the Common Core State Standards.  Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/common-core-state-standards-resources.

McTighe, J. (n.d.). Understanding by Design. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/pdfs/resources/wiggins-mctighe-backward-design-why-backward-is-best.pdf

Image 1 from: http://www.teachingquality.org/content/blogs/rob-kriete/common-core-putting-students-paths-21st-century-success

Image 2 from: http://slideplayer.com/slide/8438039/

Image 3 from: http://www.slideshare.net/nicoles1210/pbis-strategies-classroom-management

Image 4 from: http://www.teachers.net/wong/AUG14/

Standards and Backwards Mapping

“In the real world, no teacher is there to direct and remind you about which lesson to plug in here or what strategy fits there; transfer is about intelligently and effectively drawing from your repertoire, independently, to handle new situations on your own. Accordingly, we should see an increase, by design, in problem- and project-based learning, small-group inquiries, Socratic Seminars, and independent studies as learners progress through the curriculum across the grades” (McTighe).

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Subject and Grade Level:

This Unit is geared towards a 5th grade social studies class.

Standard Of Use:

5th grade AERO Social Studies Standard :
(Connections and Conflict) Students will understand causes and effects of interaction among societies, including trade, war, and diplomacy.

Identify and use primary and secondary sources to
examine the past and present.

Explain the major ways groups, societies, and nations interact with one
another (e.g., trade, cultural exchanges)

Reasons For Choosing This Standard:

“The primary purpose of social
studies education is reflective inquiry, that is, students will develop critical-thinking and problem-solving skills in the
context of relevant, “real world,” engaging issues. By acquiring these skills, students can then enter their working and
adult lives equipped to resolve problems of their own and of their communities and their nation.” (AERO Social Studies Standards)

  • Studying our ancestors and other cultures helps student understand how we, as a species, have developed.
  • As a social science major I have a personal fondness for social studies.
  • History and other social studies subjects are often presented in a boring fashion. This creates dislike and disinterest for students in such an important area. If done in a creative and interactive way, perhaps interest can be cultivated.
  • History can be tedious, especially ancient history. However, it is an important skill for students to examine how the past has affected the future.

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3 Proficiencies Demonstrating Mastery of Unit:

  1. Use textbooks and internet resources to piece together information about Greek life, Geography, and city-states.
  2. Identify how Greek city-states interacted with each other (trade, war, diplomacy).
  3. Explain the differences between various types of governments that existed in ancient Greece (Monarchy, Oligarchy, Representative Democracy), and determine which is most similar to the current U.S. government.

3 Assessments To Show Adherence With Standard:

  1. Exit ticket with essential questions: Examples of questions could be –

– What is a city-state?

– Did the city-states get along with each other?

-Besides having lots of coastline, Greece has a very hilly and mountainous                                    interior. How did this affect its development?

2. Quiz: Students can take an in-class quiz, or the teacher might assign a take-home or             online quiz (potential online quiz).

3. Reflection on simulation: The activity 4 listed below, can actually serve as an          informal assessment in and of itself. It requires students to interact with each other as if they were separate Greek city-states. However, to solidify the content perhaps a written reflection, or a class discussion of the simulation would be beneficial.
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3 Instructional Learning Experiences or Activities:

  1. Social Media Campaign Project: Then Objective of this activity is for students to work together in groups to create a commercial and social media campaign to “sell”, “promote”, and convince their classmates that their Greek city-state is a desirable travel destination. They will need to identify and explain the key characteristics of their particular city in an appealing fashion.
  2. Greek Life Web Quest: Students will be given a map, mind map, or timeline that they need to fill out. The teacher will create a web-quest that could be completed as a homework assignment, or perhaps as in-class group work.
  3. Mind Map or Essay: The students will work in pairs and will describe and compare various forms of government by writing a short essay or creating a mind map examining the “How would you survive in Sparta or Athens”.
  4. Greek City State Simulation: In this activity, students will take on different roles as members of a Greek city-state. Each member has a specific job to do and will work with other members in the city-state to complete assigned tasks. Students will employ collaborative, creative and communication skills to develop an understanding of ancient Greece by participating in a simulation game,
    using the internet to gather information and answer assigned questions on ancient Greece, identifying and label major cities and landforms on a map, and
    constructing a monument following instructions and using specific materials. This simulation could be used as supplemental activity for a unit on Ancient Greece. It could also be used partly for test preparation, where students gather information and answers to questions in preparation for a test. This simulation will promote and enhance the 21st Century skills of collaboration, creativity, critical thinking and communication and could serve as a perfect end of unit activity.

 

Sources

McTighe, Jay. (6, December 2012). Common Core Big Idea 4: Map Backward From Intended Results. Retrieved from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/common-core-map-backwards-jay-mctighe-grant-wiggins.

McTighe, Jay. (27, January 2014). Greatest Lesson Learned. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KUtzbJtS1aY

@. (2013). Backward Design Definition. Retrieved October 15, 2016, from http://edglossary.org/backward-design/

 

Applying Classroom Rules and Procedures

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Throughout history teachers have carried a heavy burden, and they continue to soldier on under great expectations to this day. We are required to inspire, to train, to motivate, to assess, to discipline, to prompt, to control, to admonish, to organize, to tutor, to encourage, etc…

“The term ‘facilitator’ is used by many authors to describe a particular kind of teacher, one who is democratic (where the teacher shares some of the leadership with the students) rather than autocratic (where the teacher is in control of everything that goes on in the classroom), and one who fosters learner autonomy (where students not only learn on their own, but also take responsibility for that learning) through the use of group and pair work and by acting as more of a resource than a transmitter of knowledge” (Ferlazzo).

The list of teacher responsibilities and roles is practically endless.

Perhaps one of the greatest challenges that teachers face is the necessity to control and manage the classroom. Obviously, this aspect of teaching is not as enjoyable as the impartation of knowledge, or the cultivation of creativity. However, without classroom management strategies students will dissolve into anarchy and the teacher will be faced with a situation almost as dire as the Cuban missile crisis. Perhaps I exaggerate, but to a teacher a serious behavior issue in the classroom can feel like a world war.

Teachers are often given training and resources to address academic issues and failures but are left to their own devices when it comes to student behavior. “Students who make academic mistakes are given time to review, relearn, and reassess until they master the content. But with students who fail to meet behavior expectations, more often than not we respond by assuming willful disobedience, removing students from the classroom, and assigning disciplinary consequences. When our typical responses for behavior are applied to academic issues, it’s easy to see the disparity” (Hogan).

Addressing classroom behavior is a necessity for teachers for proper classroom function and teacher efficacy, that is imperative. The “how” is a bit more subjective. Every teacher has different preferences and in addition each classroom has it’s own unique personality with a combination of students from a multitude of diverse backgrounds. With all this in mind, it can be concluded that a “combination of positive and negative consequences appears to be the optimum approach” (Marzano).

 

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The following information is a tentative plan on how I will address and handle behavior issues in my classroom. I mention “tentative” not out of a lack of sincerity or consistency, but as a reminder that plans can change and teachers must be flexible as a result of unique classroom and students needs.

Flowchart For Rule and Procedure Reinforcement

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I would like to elucidate the above chart for the sake of clarification and unravel some key points of management in my future classroom. The following techniques are planned for an elementary level classroom.

Positive Reinforcement

Precise Verbal Praise : When a student is exhibiting positive behavior it is beneficial to recognize and praise it. For example, a positive response to a directive could receive a response from the teacher such as, “Anna, I like the way you are________.”

Precise Non-verbal Praise: In certain situations the it might be beneficial to utilize non-verbal praise such as high-fives or a thumbs up. It is up to the teacher to decide if these non-verbal praises should be explained or covered more in depth at the beginning of the year. * It is also extremely important as the teacher to know what kinds of physical contact, even in a positive way, are allowed in a particular school or country.

Tangible Recognition: I am not yet convinced that a token system is my personal preference for classroom management. However, sometimes schools have such systems set up, in which case, I am happy to comply with them.

For positive behavior reinforcement I would prefer to use something along the lines of a growth mindset coupon that children can show their friends or take home and display to their parents.

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Home Contingency: “Recognition of good behavior can extend beyond the classroom. Students view the teacher or school contacting the home about their good behavior as a valued acknowledgment (Marzano). If a student receives a growth mindset coupon, then it would be an extra positive reinforcement step for the teacher to reach out to the parents to make them aware of the particular behind the coupon.

Negative Consequences

Precise Verbal Warning: Sometimes students will require a verbal reprimand. But even when this is necessary the phrasing can be done in a helpful, and non-demeaning way. I would consider using the following phrases:

  • I see you are having a difficult time listening, how can we fix this?
  • Chris, instead of talking to your neighbor, could you use your listening ears, please?
  • Ella, do you need to visit the calm down corner?
  • James, I understand you are feeling __________, but right now can you _______?
  • Grace, is that how we behave in class?

Non-verbal Consequence: If a student is being disruptive by actions or speech there are two non-verbal responses I am prepared to utilize. The first would be teacher proximity. If the lesson allows the teacher to move closer to the student this might be enough to dissolve the situation without further action. If this does not assist the student in adjusting their behavior to adhere to classroom standards then I might consider moving them to a different seat or area.

Physical Removal: Certain situations might require the physical removal of a student from the lesson. If the reason is not serious enough to warrant a visit to the principal, then I would assert that a “calm down corner” is a good alternative to the traditional “time out”.

The purpose of the calm down corner is to reflect and re-asses the situation. This is also a great way for students to assume responsibility for their own actions.

screen-shot-2016-10-02-at-2-05-18-pmHome Contingency: It is sometimes necessary to contact the parents when student negative behavior becomes a consistent issue. However, it is good to keep a few things in mind.

  • Use the sandwich approach by also saying something positive. Such as, “Kyle excels in __area, but recently I’ve noticed a worrying trend with his ____ skills.”
  • Be specific and use record examples when possible.
  • Write down a script with specific topics to discuss.
  • Inform them of classroom rules and how those have been broken. “In my classroom, students are not allowed to _________, Kyle has has been consistently struggling to follow this rule.”
  • Listen to the parents.
  • Come up with a collaborative plan of action. This could involve a face to face meeting, or perhaps simply the parents having a conversation with their child at home about the situation.

“Withitness is one of the most well-recognized classroom management techniques” (Marzano). Hopefully, I will be able to demonstrate withitness and preventative measures that will diminish the need for the negative consequences in my classroom. However, it is beneficial and imperative to have contingency plans in place for any issues that may arise.

Sources

Marzano, R. J. (2007). The art and science of teaching: A comprehensive framework for effective instruction. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Ferlazzo, L. (2013). Positive, Not Punitive, Classroom-Management Tips. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/positive-not-punitive-part-1-larry-ferlazzo
Hogan, A. (2015). Behavior Expectations and How to Teach Them. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://www.edutopia.org/blog/behavior-expectations-how-to-teach-them-aaron-hogan
One, W. (2015). Growth Mindset Student Recognition Cards (Including Editable). Retrieved October 02, 2016, from https://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Growth-Mindset-Student-Recognition-Cards-Including-Editable-2001158
83, T. A. (1970). Calm Down Kit- 2nd Edition! Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://www.autismadventures.com/2015/04/calm-down-kit-2nd-edition.html
Says, K., Says, K., Says, A. R., & Says, K. (2016). Why Saying “Calm Down” To Your Kids Doesn’t Actually Work – The Mommy View. Retrieved October 02, 2016, from http://themommyview.viewsfromastepstool.com/index.php/2016/07/06/saying-calm-down-doesnt-actually-work/
M. (n.d.). Teachers: Making Difficult Phone Calls to Parents (How to Call Parents, with a Script!). Retrieved October 02, 2016, from https://owlcation.com/academia/Teachers-How-to-Make-a-Difficult-Phone-Call-to-a-Parent